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L-Com Coaxial Tips

Coaxial Tips Answers, Videos, PDFs
When is 50 Ohm coaxial cable used?
What is the difference between a plug and a jack?
Identifying a reverse polarized connector
Solid vs. Stranded centre conductors   View Video
When is 75 Ohm coaxial cable used?
When do you use Plenum cable?
Digital and Analogue Cable
Distinguishing between 50 and 75 Ohm BNC connectors
What is the difference between a WITHIN SERIES coaxial adapter and a INTER SERIES coaxial adapter?
What is the purpose of an Auto Terminating adapter?
What is a coaxial type product? A coaxial type product is one that has two conductors (inner & outer) forming a closed transmission medium.
What are coaxial products typically used for? Coaxial products are typically used for the transmission of radio frequency (RF) energy.
What are some of the common connector types used on coaxial cable? Some of the common connector types used on coaxial cable are BNC, SMA, SMB, SMC, MCX, TNC, N, SMC, MMCX, F, and UHF. These connector types come in male and female versions.
What is the difference between male and female connectors? A male connector is commonly referred to as a plug and has a solid pin for a center conductor. A female connector is commonly referred to as a jack and has a center conductor with a hole in it to accept the male pin.
How do coaxial devices work? Coaxial devices work by transmitting energy along a path between the center conductor and the outer conductor.
What are the general types of coaxial cables? Typically there are three broad categories:
Flexible: Similar in feel to a power cord, this type cable is flexible. Semi-Rigid: This type of cable has a soft outer metal jacket and has limited forming properties. Rigid: This type of cable has a metal pipe like structure with little or no bending capabilities.
What are some of the commonly used coaxial cable types? A majority of coaxial cable types have their origins in the military world and are identified as RG (Radio frequency,Government ) Some common types of RG cable are RG6, RG59, RG62, RG58, RG142, RG174, RG188 and RG316.
Why are there so many cable types? Each cable type has performance or physical characteristics that differentiate it such as size, frequency, power, insertion loss, impedance or operating temperature.
What type of products are found in the coaxial section? Some of the products found in the coaxial section are bulk cable, cable assemblies, connectors, adapters, assembly tools, splitters, switches and baluns.
What are some typical applications for coaxial type products? Coaxial products are often used in broadcast, network, communications, audio/video and test applications.
What is frequency? Frequency is the number of times a periodic action occurs in one second. The unit of measure is hertz.
What is attenuation? Attenuation, often called insertion loss, is a loss of signal power. This term is used in both coaxial and fiber optic products.
What does VSWR stand for? VSWR stands for Voltage Standing Wave Ratio. It is the amount of reflected power expressed as a ratio (1.25:1).
What is impedance in a coaxial product? In simple terms, impedance, in a coaxial product, is the measurement of resistance to the flow of current. The unit of measurement is Ohms. The following is a more technically correct definition: Transmission line impedance, also known as characteristic impedance, is the ratio of the amplitudes of a single pair of voltage and current waves propagating along an infinitely long transmission line with absence of any reflections. Characteristic impedance measures like resistance when dealing coaxial cable types. Characteristic impedance is a relationship between the capacitance per unit length and the inductance per unit length. The inner and outer coaxial diameter ratios and the dielectric constant in the cable define the parameters involved in determining characteristic impedance.
What is the function of a coaxial switch? A coaxial switch is used to switch energy from an input port to one of a number of output ports.
What is the function of a balun? The function of a balun (acronym for BALanced/UNbalanced) is to change from one transmission medium with a defined impedance (i.e. 75 Ohms coaxial) to another transmission medium with a different impedance (ie. 120 Ohms twisted pair).
What does double shield mean in a coaxial cable? Double shielding in a coaxial cable indicates two layers of outer conductor shielding. Often one layer is a metallized foil while the other layer is a metallic braid. These two layers decrease the leakage of energy from the cable.
How does frequency affect performance of a coaxial cable assembly? In a coaxial cable assembly as frequency increases so does attenuation and VSWR. Each type of coaxial cable and connector also has a cutoff frequency which is the maximum operating frequency that they can operate at.
What is the difference between a crimp connector and a clamp connector? Crimp and clamp are terms used to describe the method used to attach a connector to coaxial cable. With a crimp connector, a ring is crimped around the outer conductor (shield) to a slotted or knurled stem. A clamp connector uses a V-shaped wedge ring to secure the outer conductor (shield) to the connector body.
What is a twin axial cable? A twin axial cable is similar to a coaxial cable except that in a twin axial cable there are two center conductors within one outer conductor/dielectric structure.
What are the primary impedance standards for coaxial cable? The primary impedance standards for coaxial cable are as follows:
1. 75 Ohms, used by the telephone and broadcast industry for the transmission of voice, video and data. 2. 50 Ohms, developed by the military for ship to ship and air to ground communications.
3. 93 Ohms, developed as a low capacitance instrumentation cable.
What are some of the major factors which influence shielding effectiveness of flexible coaxial cable assemblies? Some of the major factors which influence shielding effectiveness of flexible coaxial cable assemblies are as follows:
1. Number of shields (flat braid, round braid and helical wrap)
2. Braid style and coverage (flat vs. round)
3. Thickness of shield material and plating.
4. Connector and style of attachment.
In a coaxial cable, what is the difference in performance between a solid and stranded center conductor? A solid center conductor coaxial cable will have lower attenuation per foot than a stranded center conductor coaxial cable. A stranded center conductor coaxial cable will however be more flexible than a solid center conductor coaxial cable.
What is the function of an auto terminating connector? The function of an auto terminating connector is to create an internal termination (resistive load) when there is no mating connector attached. When mating connectors are attached the resistor is disengaged and a transmission path is created. This eliminates the need to attach terminators (dummy loads) to unconnected ports.
What is an SMA connector? An SMA connector is a semi-precision subminiature connector with a screw type coupling mechanism, 50 Ohm impedance and a typical operating frequency of DC to 18GHz.
What is an MCX connector? An MCX connector utilizes a snap on coupling mechanism and has a typical operating frequency of DC to 6 GHz. This style connector is offered in both 50 and 75 Ohm versions.
What is an SMB connector? An SMB connector is a reduced size version of an SMA connector with a snap on coupling mechanism. The typical operating frequency of an SMB connector is DC to 4 GHz. This style interface is offered in both 50 and 75 Ohm versions.
What is a BNC connector? A BNC connector is a connector with a bayonet locking mechanism and comes in both 50 and 75 Ohm versions. BNC connectors are typically used in applications below 4GHz.
What is an F connector? F connectors are threaded coupling connectors that have a maximum operating frequency of 1 GHz. The F type connector is a 75 Ohm impedance connector with wide use in the CATV industry.
What is a TNC connector? A TNC connector is similar in size to a BNC except it features a threaded coupling nut and a typical operating frequency up to 11GHz. TNC connectors are widely used in telecommunications infrastructure applications.
What is an N connector? An N connector features a threaded coupling nut and a typical operating frequency up to 11GHz. N connectors have a 50 Ohm impedance.
What is a UHF connector? A UHF connector is the original radio frequency connector with an operating frequency range from DC to 300MHz. The UHF connector features a threaded coupling mechanism and is widely used in low frequency applications.
What is a reverse polarized connector? A reverse polarized connector is a non standard type interface that utilizes a male center conductor with a female style outer conductor coupling mechanism and a female center conductor with a male style outer conductor coupling mechanism. These types of non standard interfaces are required by FCC part 15.203 for use on specific types of wireless devices. Common types of reverse polarized connectors are TNC, SMA and N.